Pink, D.H., Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us
autotelic experiences p. 111
asymptote 124 a straight line that a curve approaches but never quite touches
Ariely, Dan, p. 25 Predictibly Irrational
Frey, Bruno p. 26 behavioral economics
Amabile, Theresa p. 28
Alinsky, Saul 84
Csikszentmihalyi, M, Flow 29
Deci, Edward 29
Results Only Learning Environment (ROLE)
Self determination theory SDT p. 69
21 open source depends on intrinsic motivation "enjoyment based intrinsic motivation, namely how creative a person feels when working on the project, is the strongest and most persuasive driver." Lakhani and Wolf
23 for benefit organizations--economically self sustaining and have public purpose-- are "purpose maximizers"
26 Bruno Frey--"Intrinsic motivation is of great importance for all economic activities. It is inconceivable that people are motivated solely or even mainly by external incentives."
27 Algorithmic task--follow instructions to do something one way 30% of new jobs carrots and sticks can work to motivate
Heuristic task--have to experiment to devise solution 70 % of new jobs--carrots and sticks devastate motivation Amabile--29 "Intrinsic motivation conducive to creativity; controlling extrinsic motivation is detrimental to creativity."
33 "Best use of money as motivator is to pay people enough to take the issue of money off the table"
Carrots and sticks--what was always believed to be the best motivation actually reduces motivation
34 Tom Sawyer--make work seem fun or rewards can turn fun into work
Love and Logic says don't pay kids to do tasks because it tells them that the task sucks, it looks as though Deci is saying that you don't tell them that it sucks by paying them, you just make it suck by paying them.
37 Deci reported 128 experiments show tangible rewards have negative effect on intrinsic motivation--"When institutions families, schools, businesses, and athletic teams focus on short-term and opt for controlling people's behavior," they do considerable long term damage.
39 Incentive pay for teachers in India--higher incentives lead to worse performance
44 rewarded subjects have a harder time seeing periphery and crafting original solutions--intrinsic motivation essential for high levels of creativity if-then situation is stifling
Goals people set for themselves and are devoted to mastering are usually healthy, those imposed by others--standardized test scores, quarterly reports etc have dangerous side effects
intrinsic motivation--the reward is the activity itself deepening learning, doing one's best-- there are no shortcuts
50 Daycare fines increase late pick up
57 Flaws of Carrot and Sticks
1. extinguish intrinsic motivation
2. diminish performance
3. crush creativity
4. crowd out good behavior
5. encourage cheating, shortcuts, unethical behavior.
6. can become addictive
7. fosters short-term thinking
60 When carrot and sticks work
If task is 100% algorithmic if even a little heuristic with some thinking then do not use carrots and sticks
If task not exciting:
tell why task is necessary
acknowledge task is boring
allow people to complete task in their own way
64 Extrinsic Warning Label
****Best approach establish conditions for motivating environment. Baseline rewards must be sufficient. The team's basic compensation must be adequate and fair. Must have autonomy, opportunity to pursue mastery and daily duties must relate to larger purpose. provide sense of urgency and significance and then get out of the talent's way. ********
Any extrinsic reward should be unexpected and offered only after the task is complete. Not "if-then" but" now that"
1st non tangible rewards--praise positive feedback
2nd provide useful information--praise about effort and strategy rather than achieving a certain outcome
67 Using rewards flowchart
Chapter 3 Type I and Type X
69 self determination theory Deci and Ryan competence, autonomy and relatedness
Humans have innate desire to be autonomous, self determined and connected
71 Dweck, C Amabile, Gardner,
75 Type X fueled by extrinsic desires
Type I Intrinsic desires third drive--almost always outperform X--both born and made, behavior renewable, promotes greater physical and mental well being depends on autonomy, mastery and purpose
Chapter 4 Autonomy
84 Results only Work Environment ROWE Cali Ressler and Jody Thompson Saul Alinsky
85 $ a threshold motivator--once reach certain level to take care of family extra money doesn't affect performance
86 management--goal= compliance-- needs control main tool is extrinsic motivator
88 Deci and Ryan "Autonomous motivation involves behaving with a full sense of volition and choice."
89 Cornell--320 small businesses half top down half autonomy--autonomous grew 4x the rate of controlled and had 1/3 the turnover
92 4 T's of Autonomy Task, Time, Technique, Team
94 3M 15%
96 Zero Sum Game-- someone wins so someone else has to lose
111-113 autotelic experiences--the goal is self fulfilling the activity is its own reward Flow
"Mastery is a pain" 10,000 hours minimum of 10 years
123 Dweck--effort is one of the things that gives meaning to life. effort means you care about something, that something is important to you and you are willing to work for it. It would be an impoverished existence if you were not willing to value thins and commit yourself to working toward them."
127 Flow necessity 48 hours without is similar to psychiatric disorder--oxygen of the soul
Ch 6 Purpose
Part 3 Type I Toolkit
154 Flow Test
Set alarm on phone to go off 40 random times during the week. Each time the alarm goes off write what you are doing, how you feel, whether you are in flow. Record observations, look at patterns, consider questions
Which moments produced feelings of "flow"? Where were you? What were you working on? Who were you with?
Are certain times of day more flow friendly than others? How could you restructure your day based on your findings?
How might you increase the number of optimal experiences and reduce the moments when you felt disengaged or distracted?
If you're having doubts about your job or career, what does this exercise tell you about your true source of intrinsic motivation?
155 What's your sentence?
Abraham Lincoln He preserved the union and freed the slaves.
156 Was I a little better today than yesterday?
157 To don't list
158 5 Steps closer to mastery
Deliberate practice has 1 objective--to improve performance
Repetition matters Great shooters don't shoot 10 free throws after practice they shoot 500
seek constant critical feedback
focus ruthlessly on where you need help
prepare for the process to be mentally and physically exhausting
159 On 3 x 5 cards answer the question "What gets you up in the morning?" and "What keeps you up at night" Answer in one sentence. Keep working until you get answers you like.
159-160 create your own motivational poster
Homework questions to consider
- Am I offering students any autonomy over how and when to do this work?
- Does this assignment promote mastery by offering a novel, engaging task (as opposed to rote reformulation of something already covered in class)
- Do my students understand the purpose of this assignment? Can they see how doing this additional activity at home contributes to the larger enterprise in which the class is engaged?
187 FED ED Day
189-190 Praise hard work not smarts
197 Type I Reading list
208 Business thinkers who get it
- Twitter summary 140 characters
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